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Petróleo en Latinoamerica - Bolivia
Jueves, 22 de Diciembre de 2011 18:14

Hydrocarbons are an important element of the economy of Bolivia, one of the poorest and least developed countries in Latin America. Though Bolivia exports natural gas to Brazil and Argentina, continued questions about the actual size of its proved natural gas reserves have contributed to skepticism about the country's potential to be a significant fossil fuel producer and regional energy hub. Political risk also has characterized the energy sector and foreign involvement in it. Bolivia has asserted greater state control over the energy sector since President Evo Morales and his Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party assumed power in January 2006 and issued a nationalization decree in May of that year.

Hydrocarbons, primarily natural gas, account for roughly 10 percent of Bolivia's gross domestic product, 30 percent of government revenues, and 40 percent of export earnings. The state-owned oil company and private companies claimed to invest around $800 million in Bolivia's hydrocarbon sector in 2010, an increase of over 30 percent from 2009.

Bolivia's known fossil fuel endowment is largely concentrated in southern and eastern departments, which have been controlled by opposition parties that demand greater autonomy from the federal government - partly in order to increase investment in and revenues from the hydrocarbon sector.

Petroleum is responsible for roughly half of Bolivia's primary energy consumption, with most of the remainder attributable to natural gas. According to the International Energy Agency, combustible renewables and waste meet nearly 15 percent of the country's energy needs. Traditional biomass is an important fuel for heating and cooking, especially for the 2.2 million Bolivians who lack access to electricity. The electrification rate of 77.5 percent masks enormous disparities for urban and rural populations: more than 98 percent of city dwellers have access to electricity, compared to just 38 percent of those in rural areas.


DESCARGA:  eia_bolivia.pdf 779.99 Kb